How to Make a Homemade Hydroponic System Step by Step

Welcome to our comprehensive guide on how to create your own homemade hydroponic system. With our step-by-step instructions, you’ll be able to set up a DIY hydroponic setup and enjoy the benefits of cultivating plants efficiently in the comfort of your own home.

Table of Contents

Key Takeaways:

  • Create your own hydroponic system from scratch with our step-by-step instructions.
  • Understand the basics of hydroponics and its benefits for gardening at home.
  • Choose a suitable hydroponic system design for your DIY setup.
  • Gather all the necessary materials and tools before starting the construction process.
  • Follow our detailed guide to build your homemade hydroponic setup.

Understanding Hydroponics

Before diving into the process of building a homemade hydroponic system, it’s important to understand the basics of hydroponics. This section will provide you with a brief introduction to hydroponics and its benefits for gardening at home.

Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Instead, plants are grown in a nutrient-rich water solution, allowing them to absorb the necessary nutrients directly. This technique offers several advantages over traditional soil-based gardening.

Benefits of Hydroponics

  • Reduced water usage: Hydroponic systems use up to 90% less water compared to conventional gardening, making it a more sustainable option.
  • Faster growth: With direct access to nutrients, plants in hydroponic systems tend to grow faster and yield higher crop yields.
  • Space efficiency: Hydroponic systems can be set up vertically, maximizing the use of limited space and allowing you to grow more plants in a smaller area.
  • Pest and disease control: Without soil, many common pests and diseases that affect traditional gardens can be minimized or eliminated in hydroponic systems.
  • Year-round gardening: Hydroponic systems can be set up indoors, allowing you to grow plants throughout the year regardless of seasonal limitations.

By understanding the principles of hydroponics, you’ll be better equipped to create a successful homemade hydroponic system and enjoy the benefits of this efficient and sustainable gardening method.

Choosing a Suitable Hydroponic System Design

When it comes to constructing a hydroponic system at home, selecting the right design is essential for successful plant cultivation. With numerous options available, it’s important to choose a hydroponic system design that suits your specific needs and resources. In this section, we’ll explore different designs and provide guidance to help you make an informed choice for your homemade hydroponic system.

1. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

The Nutrient Film Technique is a popular hydroponic system design that involves a continuous flow of nutrient-rich solution over the roots of plants. This design requires a sloped channel or tube where a thin film of nutrient solution circulates, providing an oxygenated environment for the plants.

2. Deep Water Culture (DWC)

If you’re looking for a simple and low-maintenance hydroponic system design, Deep Water Culture is worth considering. In this system, plant roots are submerged in a nutrient solution, allowing them constant access to oxygen. The simplicity of DWC makes it suitable for beginners.

3. Ebb and Flow (Flood and Drain)

Ebb and Flow is another popular hydroponic system design that utilizes a flood and drain technique. The system periodically floods the root zone with a nutrient solution and then drains it away. This cycle helps provide oxygen to the roots and prevents waterlogging.

4. Drip System

A drip system is a versatile and widely used hydroponic design that involves supplying a nutrient solution directly to the plant’s root zone through small tubes or emitters. This controlled delivery method allows for precise nutrient and water management, making it suitable for a variety of plants.

These are just a few examples of hydroponic system designs available. Depending on your space, budget, and plant preferences, you can explore other designs such as the Wick System, Aeroponics, or even vertical towers. Consider the available resources, maintenance requirements, and scalability of each design to make an informed decision for your homemade hydroponic system.

Hydroponic System DesignKey FeaturesAdvantages
Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)– Continuous flow of nutrient solution
– Oxygenates the roots
– Efficient use of water and nutrients
– Suitable for leafy greens and herbs
– Low water consumption
– Space-efficient
Deep Water Culture (DWC)– Roots submerged in nutrient solution
– Oxygenates the roots
– Easy to set up and maintain
– Suitable for beginners
– Low-cost setup
– Minimal water and nutrient usage
Ebb and Flow (Flood and Drain)– Periodic flooding and draining of root zone
– Provides oxygen to the roots
– Versatile and scalable
– Suitable for a wide range of plants
– Customizable timing and flooding frequency
– Easy to adjust nutrient levels
Drip System– Nutrient solution delivered through tubes or emitters
– Precise nutrient and water control
– Suitable for various plant types
– Versatile and customizable
– Low risk of waterlogging
– Easy to automate

Gathering Materials and Tools

To construct your homemade hydroponic system, you’ll need specific materials and tools. We’ll provide you with a detailed list of everything you’ll need, ensuring you’re well-prepared to begin the DIY process.

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Here’s a breakdown of the essential materials and tools needed for your hydroponic system:


  1. A plastic container or reservoir to hold the water and nutrient solution.
  2. Growing containers or net pots to hold the plants.
  3. A growth medium, such as rockwool, perlite, or coconut coir, to support the plants.
  4. A water pump to circulate the nutrient solution.
  5. Aeration stones or air pump to provide oxygen to the roots.
  6. An opaque cover or lid to prevent light from entering the reservoir and inhibiting algae growth.
  7. Hydroponic nutrients specifically formulated for plant growth.
  8. pH test kit or meter to monitor and adjust the nutrient solution’s pH level.
  9. EC (electrical conductivity) meter to measure the nutrient concentration in the water.
  10. Seeds or seedlings of your desired plants.


  • A drill for creating holes in the container or reservoir.
  • Hole saw or a utility knife to cut holes for net pots or growing containers.
  • A tape measure or ruler to ensure accurate measurements.
  • Scissors for cutting the growth medium or trimming roots.
  • A marker or pen to mark the position of holes and measurements.
  • A pH adjustment solution or acid/base to adjust the nutrient solution’s pH level.
  • A nutrient mixing container or bucket to prepare the nutrient solution.
  • Labels or markers to identify different plant varieties or nutrient solutions.

With these materials and tools at hand, you’re well-equipped to start building your homemade hydroponic system. In the next section, we’ll guide you through the step-by-step process of constructing your hydroponic setup.

Plastic container or reservoirDrill
Growing containers or net potsHole saw or utility knife
Growth mediumScissors
Water pump
Aeration stones or air pump
Opaque cover or lid
Hydroponic nutrients
pH test kit or meter
EC meter
Seeds or seedlings
Hole saw or utility knife
Tape measure or ruler
Marker or pen
pH adjustment solution
Nutrient mixing container or bucket
Labels or markers

Building the Hydroponic Setup

Now that you have gathered all the necessary materials and tools, it’s time to start building your own hydroponic setup. Follow these step-by-step instructions to assemble the structure and connect all the components.

  1. Constructing the Frame Begin by building the frame of your hydroponic system. Use the PVC pipes to create the structure according to your chosen design. Secure the pipes together using PVC connectors and adhesive, ensuring a sturdy frame.
  2. Attaching the Growing Trays Once the frame is ready, attach the growing trays to the appropriate sections. Make sure the trays are securely fastened to prevent any leaks or instability.
  3. Installing the Water Pump Next, install the water pump inside the water reservoir. Connect the necessary tubing to the pump, ensuring proper water circulation within your hydroponic system.
  4. Connecting the Irrigation System Connect the irrigation system to the water pump. Depending on your chosen design, this may involve attaching misters, sprayers, or drip emitters to provide a constant supply of water and nutrients to your plants.
  5. Adding the Growing Medium Fill the growing trays with the appropriate growing medium. This can be perlite, vermiculite, coconut coir, or any other suitable material depending on the type of plants you intend to grow.
  6. Setting Up the Lighting System If you are growing plants indoors or in a space with limited natural light, you will need to set up a lighting system. Install the grow lights above the growing trays, ensuring they provide the right spectrum and intensity for optimal plant growth.
  7. Testing and Adjusting the System Before transplanting your plants, test the hydroponic system to ensure everything is functioning correctly. Check for leaks, ensure the water pump is working, and adjust the nutrient solution levels if necessary.

By following these steps and taking the time to properly assemble and connect your hydroponic setup, you’ll be well on your way to creating a functioning DIY hydroponic system at home.

Setting Up the Water Reservoir and Nutrient Solution

The water reservoir and nutrient solution are vital components of any hydroponic system. By properly setting up and maintaining these elements, you can ensure optimal plant growth and maximize the success of your homemade hydroponic system.

Setting Up the Water Reservoir

The first step in setting up your water reservoir is to choose an appropriate container. It should be large enough to hold an ample amount of water to meet the needs of your plants. Ensure that the container is clean and free from any residues or contaminants that could harm your plants.

Next, fill the water reservoir with water. It is recommended to use filtered or distilled water to avoid the presence of impurities that may affect plant health. Make sure the water level is sufficient to keep the roots of your plants submerged within the hydroponic solution.

Preparing the Nutrient Solution

The nutrient solution is a crucial element in hydroponic systems as it provides the essential nutrients for plant growth. To prepare the nutrient solution, you will need a suitable hydroponic nutrient mix. Follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer to determine the appropriate dosage for your specific plants and hydroponic system size.

Measure the required amount of hydroponic nutrient mix and add it to the water reservoir. Stir the mixture thoroughly to ensure the nutrients are fully dissolved in the water. It is advisable to periodically check and adjust the pH level of the nutrient solution to maintain an optimal range for nutrient absorption by the plants.

Monitoring and Maintaining the Water Reservoir and Nutrient Solution

Regular monitoring and maintenance of the water reservoir and nutrient solution are essential for the health and productivity of your hydroponic system. Keep an eye on the water level and top it up whenever necessary to compensate for evaporation or plant water uptake.

Tip: It’s a good practice to periodically check the nutrient concentration in the solution using an EC (electrical conductivity) meter, ensuring it remains within the recommended range for your crops.

Additionally, monitor the pH level of the nutrient solution using a pH meter or test kit. Adjust the pH as needed to maintain a suitable range for nutrient uptake, typically between 5.5 and 6.5 for most plants.

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Regularly inspect the water reservoir for any signs of contamination or decay. Clean the reservoir if necessary and replace the nutrient solution every 1-2 weeks, depending on the specific requirements of your plants.

Ensuring Success with Your Water Reservoir and Nutrient Solution

By properly setting up and maintaining the water reservoir and nutrient solution, you are providing your plants with the essential elements they need to thrive in a hydroponic system. Remember to monitor and adjust the nutrient concentration and pH level regularly, ensuring optimal conditions for plant growth.

As you progress in your hydroponic gardening journey, you may need to fine-tune the nutrient solution recipe and adjust the water reservoir’s capacity to meet the changing needs of your plants. With practice and attention to detail, you’ll develop the skills to optimize your homemade hydroponic system and achieve bountiful harvests.

Planting and Transplanting in the Hydroponic System

With your homemade hydroponic system fully constructed, it’s time to embark on the exciting journey of planting and transplanting your chosen plants. This section will walk you through the step-by-step process, offering valuable tips for successful cultivation. Whether you’re a hydroponic system beginner or an experienced DIY enthusiast, these essential steps will guide you towards a bountiful harvest.

Gather your plants and seeds

To begin, gather the plants or seeds you intend to cultivate in your hydroponic system. Choose varieties that thrive in a soilless environment, such as leafy greens, herbs, strawberries, or tomatoes. Select healthy plants or high-quality seeds from a reputable supplier to ensure optimal growth and productivity.

Select a suitable growing medium

Next, select a suitable growing medium for your hydroponic system. Common options include rockwool, perlite, vermiculite, or coco coir. Each medium has its own benefits and considerations, so choose one that aligns with your plant’s requirements and your personal preferences.

Planting seeds or transplanting seedlings

If you’re starting from seeds, follow the germination instructions provided by the seed supplier. Once the seedlings have developed roots, carefully transfer them to the hydroponic system, using the selected growing medium to secure their roots. Alternatively, if you’ve purchased seedlings or young plants, gently remove them from their original containers and transplant them into the hydroponic system.

Ensure proper spacing

Proper spacing is essential in a hydroponic system to allow adequate air circulation and prevent overcrowding, which can lead to disease or stunted growth. Consult the plant’s specific spacing requirements and adjust accordingly, ensuring each plant has enough room to thrive.

Monitor and adjust nutrient levels

Once your plants are in place, diligently monitor and adjust the nutrient solution in your hydroponic system. Regularly measure the pH and nutrient levels to maintain an optimal growing environment for your plants. Make necessary adjustments to ensure they receive the right balance of essential nutrients.

Implement a lighting schedule

Lighting plays a crucial role in hydroponic plant growth. Set up a lighting system that aligns with the specific light requirements of your chosen plants. Maintain a consistent lighting schedule, ensuring that your plants receive the correct amount of light each day.

By following these planting and transplanting steps in your homemade hydroponic system, you are one step closer to enjoying a thriving indoor garden. With proper care and maintenance, your plants will flourish, providing you with fresh, nutritious produce throughout the year.

Monitoring and Managing the Hydroponic System

Once you have set up your homemade hydroponic system, it is crucial to regularly monitor and manage it to ensure optimal plant growth. By following these essential guidelines, you can keep your hydroponic system running smoothly and address any potential issues that may arise.

1. Regularly check nutrient levels

Monitor the nutrient levels in your hydroponic system on a regular basis. This can be done using an electrical conductivity (EC) meter or a simple test kit. Maintaining the correct nutrient balance is essential for healthy plant development.

2. Adjust pH levels

pH levels play a critical role in hydroponic systems. Monitor the pH of your nutrient solution regularly and adjust it accordingly. The ideal pH range for most plants in hydroponics is between 5.5 and 6.5.

3. Check water temperature

Monitoring the water temperature is vital for the overall health of your plants. Keep the water at an optimal temperature range, usually between 65°F to 75°F (18°C to 24°C), to promote healthy root development and nutrient absorption.

4. Inspect for pests and diseases

Regularly inspect your plants for any signs of pests or diseases. Early detection is crucial for effective treatment. Implement preventive measures such as using pest-resistant varieties, maintaining proper hygiene, and ensuring good air circulation.

5. Maintain proper lighting

Ensure that your plants receive adequate light for photosynthesis. Regularly check that your grow lights are functioning correctly and adjust their height to ensure optimal light distribution across all plants.

6. Monitor plant growth and development

Observe the growth and development of your plants on a daily or weekly basis. Look out for any signs of nutrient deficiencies, stunted growth, or abnormalities. Adjust your nutrient solution and environmental conditions accordingly to support healthy plant growth.

7. Keep a record

Maintain a record of your hydroponic system’s performance. Note any changes you make, such as adjusting nutrient levels or light intensity. This record will help you track progress, identify patterns, and make informed decisions for future adjustments.

Proper monitoring and management of your homemade hydroponic system are key to achieving successful plant growth. By regularly checking nutrient levels, adjusting pH, maintaining proper lighting, and observing plant development, you can ensure that your hydroponic system functions optimally.

Care and Maintenance of the Hydroponic System

Proper care and maintenance are crucial for the long-term success of your homemade hydroponic system. By following these guidelines, you can ensure that your system operates efficiently and your plants thrive.

Regular Cleaning and Sanitization

Cleanliness is essential to keep your hydroponic system free from pests and diseases. Regularly clean and sanitize all components of your system, including the reservoir, grow trays, and irrigation system. This will help prevent the buildup of algae, bacteria, and other contaminants that could harm your plants.

Tip: Use a mild detergent and warm water to clean the system thoroughly. Rinse with clean water to remove any residue, and then sanitize with a diluted bleach solution or a hydrogen peroxide-based cleaner.

Monitoring pH and Nutrient Levels

Regularly monitor the pH and nutrient levels of your hydroponic system to ensure optimal plant growth. Invest in a pH meter and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter to accurately measure these parameters.

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Keep the pH level within the recommended range for your plants, typically between 5.5 and 6.5. Adjust the pH using pH-up or pH-down solutions as needed.

Monitor the nutrient levels in your system and adjust them according to the specific requirements of your plants. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the specific nutrient solution you are using.

Water and Nutrient Solution Management

Regularly check the water level in your reservoir and top it up as needed to maintain the desired level. Check the nutrient solution strength and adjust it by adding fresh solution when necessary.

It is also important to monitor the temperature of the water in your hydroponic system. Keeping the water temperature within the optimal range for your plants will promote healthy growth. Consider using a water heater or chiller if necessary.

Inspecting and Pruning Plants

Regularly inspect your plants for any signs of pests, diseases, or nutrient deficiencies. Remove any diseased or damaged leaves and prune your plants as necessary to promote optimal growth and airflow.

Tip: It is also a good practice to rotate your plants regularly to ensure even exposure to light and nutrients.

Weekly Maintenance Checklist

Clean and sanitize the hydroponic systemOnce a week
Monitor and adjust pH and nutrient levelsTwice a week
Check and top up the water level in the reservoirAs needed
Inspect and prune plantsOnce a week

Troubleshooting Common Hydroponic System Issues

While hydroponic systems offer many advantages for plant growth, they can occasionally encounter issues that may hinder the optimal development of your plants. In this section, we will explore some common problems that hydroponic gardeners may face and provide effective troubleshooting techniques to help you address these challenges.

Poor Nutrient Levels

One of the most common issues in hydroponic systems is maintaining proper nutrient levels for plant growth. If your plants exhibit stunted growth or nutrient deficiencies, it may be due to imbalanced nutrient solutions. Ensure that you accurately measure and mix your nutrient solution according to the specific requirements of your plants. Regularly monitor the nutrient composition and adjust it as needed to maintain optimal levels.

Inadequate Oxygenation

Oxygen is crucial for healthy root development in hydroponic systems. If your plants show signs of root rot, yellowing, or wilting, insufficient oxygenation may be the culprit. Make sure your system provides adequate aeration, such as using air pumps or air stones, to promote oxygen exchange in the nutrient solution. Regularly check the oxygen levels and adjust the aeration system as necessary to ensure optimal oxygenation.

Pest Infestations

Pests can be a major challenge for hydroponic gardeners. Symptoms such as leaf damage, discoloration, or wilting may indicate the presence of pests such as aphids, spider mites, or fungus gnats. Implement preventive measures, such as maintaining a clean growing environment and regularly inspecting your plants for early signs of infestation. If pests are detected, consider using organic pest control methods or biological controls to protect your plants.

pH Imbalances

The pH level of the nutrient solution is crucial for nutrient uptake by plants. If the pH is too high or too low, it can result in nutrient deficiencies or toxicities. Regularly monitor the pH levels using a pH meter or testing kit, and adjust it within the optimal range for your specific plants. Adding pH adjusters, such as pH-up or pH-down solutions, can help you maintain the ideal pH for your hydroponic system.

Inadequate Lighting

Proper lighting is essential for photosynthesis and plant growth in hydroponic systems. If your plants exhibit elongated stems, poor leaf development, or excessive stretching, it may indicate insufficient light intensity or duration. Ensure that your plants receive the appropriate amount of light for their growth stage, and use high-quality grow lights that emit the necessary spectrum for optimal plant growth.

Temperature Fluctuations

Extreme temperature fluctuations can negatively impact plant growth in hydroponic systems. If your plants show signs of wilting, slowed growth, or leaf burn, it may be due to temperature-related issues. Maintain a stable temperature within the recommended range for your plants. Consider using thermometers and heaters/coolers to regulate the temperature and provide a favorable growing environment.

By identifying and addressing these common hydroponic system issues promptly, you can maintain a healthy and thriving garden. Implement proper preventive measures and regular monitoring to ensure optimal plant growth and maximize the success of your homemade hydroponic setup.

Expanding and Scaling your Hydroponic System

If you’ve mastered the basics of homemade hydroponics and are ready to take your gardening to the next level, it’s time to think about expanding and scaling your hydroponic system. By optimizing your setup, you can accommodate more plants and increase your overall production. Here’s how:

Evaluate Your Space and Resources

Before expanding your hydroponic system, it’s important to assess the available space and resources. Consider factors such as the size of your growing area, available lighting, nutrient supply, and water source. This evaluation will help you determine the maximum capacity your system can handle.

Choose the Right System Design

Different hydroponic system designs have varying capacities for plant growth. When expanding, consider choosing a system design that offers scalability and flexibility. Some designs, such as the nutrient film technique (NFT) or deep water culture (DWC), are easily expandable and can support a larger number of plants.

Upgrade Your Equipment

As you expand your hydroponic system, you may need to upgrade your equipment to accommodate the increased plant load. This could include investing in larger grow trays, additional lighting fixtures, or more powerful pumps and air stones. Ensuring that your equipment can meet the demands of your expanded system is essential for successful growth.

Adjust Nutrient Solution and pH

Scaling up your hydroponic system means providing sufficient nutrients to all your plants. You may need to adjust the nutrient solution concentration to meet the higher demands of a larger plant population. Additionally, monitor the pH levels regularly and make any necessary adjustments to maintain optimal nutrient uptake.

LightingEnsure adequate light coverage for all plants in your expanded system
Air circulationImprove air circulation to prevent stagnant air or moisture build-up
Water supplyEnsure your water supply can meet the increased demand of a larger system
Nutrient supplyAdjust nutrient solution concentration to accommodate the higher plant load

Monitor and Fine-Tune

Expanding your hydroponic system requires careful monitoring and fine-tuning. Regularly check pH levels, nutrient concentrations, and overall plant health. Keep a close eye on any changes or issues that may arise, and make necessary adjustments to ensure optimal growth.

By following these steps, you can successfully expand and scale your homemade hydroponic system. Enjoy the benefits of increased production and a thriving garden!


Congratulations on completing our comprehensive guide on how to make a homemade hydroponic system step by step. By following the provided instructions, you now have a functional hydroponic setup that allows you to efficiently cultivate plants in the comfort of your own home.

Hydroponic gardening offers numerous benefits, including increased plant growth rate, water conservation, and the ability to grow crops year-round. With your homemade hydroponic system, you can enjoy fresh, nutritious produce without the need for soil or traditional gardening methods.

Remember to regularly monitor and manage your hydroponic system, ensuring optimal plant growth and addressing any potential issues that may arise. By providing the right nutrients, maintaining proper pH levels, and ensuring adequate lighting, you can maximize the efficiency of your homemade hydroponic setup.

Now that you have the knowledge and skills to create your own hydroponic system, you can experience the joys of homegrown gardening and take pride in knowing that you’re contributing to a sustainable and environmentally friendly way of cultivating plants. Start your hydroponic journey today and enjoy the many benefits of this innovative gardening technique.


What is hydroponics?

Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil. Instead, plants are grown in a nutrient-rich water solution, allowing them to absorb nutrients directly.

Why should I choose a homemade hydroponic system?

A homemade hydroponic system offers numerous benefits, including efficient use of space, water, and nutrients, controlled growing conditions, and the ability to grow plants year-round.

What types of hydroponic system designs are available?

There are several hydroponic system designs to choose from, including the nutrient film technique (NFT), deep water culture (DWC), and ebb and flow (flood and drain) systems.

What materials and tools do I need to build a homemade hydroponic system?

To build a homemade hydroponic system, you’ll need materials such as containers, growing medium, net pots, air pumps, and tubing. Tools may include drills, scissors, and measuring instruments.

How do I assemble a homemade hydroponic system?

The process of assembling a homemade hydroponic system involves constructing the structure, connecting the necessary components, and ensuring proper functioning of the system. Detailed step-by-step instructions can be found in our guide.

How do I set up the water reservoir and nutrient solution?

Setting up the water reservoir involves choosing the right container, adding water, and maintaining the water level. The nutrient solution is prepared by mixing appropriate nutrients in specific ratios outlined in our guide.

How do I plant and transplant in a hydroponic system?

Planting and transplanting in a hydroponic system involves preparing seedlings or clones, inserting them into net pots, and placing them in the growing medium. Detailed instructions can be found in our guide.

How do I monitor and manage my homemade hydroponic system?

Monitoring and managing a homemade hydroponic system involves regularly checking pH levels, nutrient levels, water temperature, and adjusting them as necessary. Our guide provides essential guidelines for effective system management.

How do I care for and maintain my hydroponic system?

Caring for and maintaining a hydroponic system includes cleaning and sterilizing the system, preventing and treating pests or diseases, and performing routine maintenance tasks. Our guide provides detailed instructions.

What are some common issues with hydroponic systems and how do I troubleshoot them?

Common issues with hydroponic systems may include pH imbalances, nutrient deficiencies or toxicities, root rot, or algae growth. Our guide offers troubleshooting techniques for addressing these problems.

Can I expand my hydroponic system in the future?

Yes, it is possible to expand or scale up your hydroponic system to accommodate more plants. Our guide provides insights on how to optimize your setup for increased production.

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